In architecture, postmodernism was formed theoretically in the second half of the 60’s, and in the practice of construction by the end of the 70’s, bringing together different on the creative principles and handwriting of masters. The early stage of postmodernism was pop art.
The second half of the last century has shown that the innovative trends of modernism have exhausted themselves. The discomfort of the urban environment was felt more and more acutely, which was associated with the construction of houses built in the style of rational functionalism and avaricious “white modernism”, which created an oppressive state of despondency and monotony.
For all the progressiveness of rational functionalism, aimed at the formation of a healthy urban environment and hygienic mass housing, in its ideology for the first time the real customer was replaced by an “average citizen”, the needs of which the architect had previously investigated, evaluated and taken into account in the typical project. The formation of the building’s appearance became just as rationally deterministic.
There was a need to return to the architecture the lost imagery, which made works of art out of various structures. Postmodernists tried to make architectural works and fantasy, and various image associations, and fiction.
Postmodernism, in contrast to the generally accepted international style, turned to the uniqueness of the world around, individual features of landscapes, using the latest successes of the construction industry. Postmodernists were most strongly criticized for such fundamental principles of modernism as functional zoning of cities, ascetic architectural forms and serial approach to design, rejection of creative heritage and regionalism.
In urban planning postmodernism professes rejection of free and gives preference to regular, mainly symmetrical system of development, and also careful, taking into account features of existing concrete urban environment.
In the field of architectural forms, postmodernism is characterized by the revival of historical architectural systems and decoration of all kinds decorative masonry, cladding, relief, ornamentation, painting, etc., the appeal to the expressiveness of the wall massif with the refusal of the ribbon windows that violate it, the revival of the active silhouette of buildings with the refusal of flat roofs.
Accordingly, the principles of historical composition construction are restored to the revived historical forms symmetry, proportionality, perspective.
Architectural development of the wall surface is diametrically opposed to the masters of functionalism and post-modernism. For the former, for example, the wall of a multi-storey house with apertures is absolutely identical in height and ends with a flat roof parapet, while the end wall keeps the virgin purity and homogeneity of the texture.
The second has a variety of shapes and sizes of apertures not only in length, but also in height of the wall, which is completed by usually various gables or pincers. Very diverse is the development of surface of the blind areas of the walls, which combine different textures, colors, relief, etc.
Postmodernism, preserving the functional and constructive basis of the building, while superimposing on it a talking and controversial scenery, taken from any architectural style.
Postmodernism is characterized not only by the use of individual details of historical styles, but also the entire systems: construction equipment, principles of composition. Thus, functional problems are relegated to the background and the aesthetic principle prevails. But it is coloured not with admiration, but with tension and irony.